Under the Dutch, sugar production expanded through the nineteenth century, at the expense of rice paddy cultivation.  This meant increasing profits for the Dutch colonial settlers and the administration and decreasing food availability for the native inhabitants of the East Indies

Sugar field and rail operation in Situbondo, East Java (These two images are of restored, steam engines that were typically used in sugar operations.)  Photo source.

Please see this site for more images of sugar cane operations.

Sugar factory in Pasuruan (probably early twentieth century)

Picture source and attribution:  Tropenmuseum of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons